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Thursday, September 15, 2011

What is Maleria

Malarial , is a disease caused by parasitic infection , the name of parasite responsible for infection are as follows.
1.)Plasmodium falciparum
2.) Plasmodium malariae
4) P. ovale
5.) Plasmodium vivax
6)P. knowlesi
Of which Plasmodium falciparum is most lethal and can become life threatening .
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patients infected with malarial parasite shows following symptoms.
1.Fever with chills , and shivering
2.Fever which is a cyclic type , which ceases after few hours and is again comes back in about 20 to 24 hours, fever is with shivering.
3.Vomiting person cant bare this , there is sever vomiting observed.
4.Joint Pain: This is a peculiar signe which becomes more sever even after fever ceases and remains for few months or year.
5.Convulsions: Because of loss of oxygen carrying blood cells .
6.Damage to eye site, because of damage to retinal membrane in eye.
7.Anemia: This is most important symptom of malaria, as hemoglobin is drastically reduced in affected patient, because malarial parasite infects red blood cells ,and damage them, which result in when there is this process going on in patients body , that time a sever fever and chills and shivering oocur .
Because of damaged red blood cells some times urine of patients shows red colour because of fractions of red blood cells are getting excreted, this is called as hemoglobinuria.
Treatment of malaria:
Some antimalarial drugs like quinine and chloroquine phosphate tablets , and injections are given, along with primaquine.
Patient must take medication until the time doctor suggest even after fever is gone so as to avoid relapse of malaria can be taken care.
Transmit ion:
Malarial parasite is infection occur when mosquito bite , as mosquito are caring malerial parasite in to their body, transmission of parasite occur after mosquito bite.
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Best method is to take care, in house put mosquito nets , and mosquito repelant creams.
Pre exposuer medications:
Before going to any aria affected with malarial parasite , one should take preventive shots.
Before starting a medication for malaria , Glucose 6 phosphatase enzyme deficiency must be evaluated or ruled out, as some drugs may case sever anemia and hemolysis in patients with Glucose 6 phosphatase enzyme deficiency .

Tuesday, August 2, 2011

What is role of vitamins in the growth of ju,am body and micro organisms

Vitamins , are biochemicals , which are very important nutrients for promoting growth of any microorganisms and human. Vital amins is the meaning in the name vitamins which means the one which very important.
Here is some important vitamins for human as well as for microbial growth.
Vitamin A it is also known as Ratinol , it is important for human being , retina of human eye require this vitamin to for its growth and its function, pharmaguideline.
Tiamine is a very important vitamin , they are required in the bio synthesis of DNA and RNA bases , hence this is important vitamin
Vitamin C ascorbic acid, is important in immunity regulation , it boosts immunity in humans .
Vitamin D ,is responsible for good growth of bone.
Vitamin E
Vitamin k
Vitamin B12 is responsible for many biochemical reactions in proteins and enzyme synthesis , therefore it is also very important for microorganisms for their growth.
Folic acid, it is important vitamin it has great role in growth as many proteins and cellular enzyme synthesis depends on its availability. pharmaguideline.
Vitamin B3 niacin is important for humans microorganisms for their growth
All vitamins are available in food items, some times due to certain gastric surgeries intake of these vitamins from gut is reduced or if there is some infection in gut the absorption of these vitamins is hindered from gut , in such condition vitamin supplements are give in the form of injection or tablets or in the form of pharmaceutical dosage form ( pharma .blogspot.com , preparations

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

virus infection and types of viruses

Viruses are microorganisms , which are living while they are in the host , they make use of host nutrients and enzymes for their own reproduction and growth.
Virus means toxic particle, virus are considered non living things when they are free in the environment in the dormant stage , and become active when the encounter a suitable host.

The example of virus which make use of our body's biochemicals and nutrients for its growth is HIV virus , it make use of human DNA material for its own reproduction. pharmaguideline.

Virus infections are many times difficult to treat as virus exhibit many strains and mutations over the time which is main reason for developing antibiotic and drug resistance.

The main reason why viruses are lethal is that they incorporate its own genetic material in to host cell. this is one of major reason that viruses are associated with many cancer in humans.
Following is the brief list of disease caused by viruses
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1. Hepatitis -- Caused by hepatitis B and A virus , Acute hepatitis is mainly caused by Hepatitis A virus
2.AIDS---Caused by HIV
3.Upper respiratory tract infection caused by ---Adenovirus
4.Picorna virus --Causes common cold like condition.
5.Yellow fever caused by yellow fever virus
6.Herpese simplex is caused by Herpeseviridae
7.infulenza is caused by Orthomyxoviridae
8.Rabies ic caused by Rhabdoviridae
9. Mumps is caused by Mumps virus
10. Poliomyletes is caused by polio virus

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

What is tyndalization

When any material which is pron to be attacked by microorganism is heated for sterilisation, say for 121 degree for 30 minutes , some time it was found that on storage such material again shows microbial growth.
It is the indication that the material might have got sterilised but in storage in favorable condition bacterial spores which are resistant to temperature at which material was sterilised germinate again and give rise to viable microorganisms again.
To counter act this phenomenon , a process was degined where in material is subjected for sterilisation process at 100 deg Celsius for 15 minutes .
Then it is stored for one day , again it is subjected for heating at 100 deg Celsius.
Material is again heated treated till it is boiled normally at 100 deg for 15 minutes.
This process in first day allows spoors to germinate in favourable condition and again material is heated , this step is repeated for two times.
This process is usually used for food processing. pharma .blogspot.com
This process is called as tyndallization after the scientists name John Tyndall who invented the process.

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